Signs and Symptoms
The most common and obvious sign of retinoblastoma is an abnormal appearance of the pupil, leukocoria. Other less common and less specific signs and symptoms are: deterioration of vision, a red and irritated eye, faltering growth or delayed development. Some children with retinoblastoma can develop a squint, commonly referred to as "cross-eyed" or "wall-eyed" (strabismus). However, retinoblastoma presence with advanced disease in developing countries and eye enlargement is a common finding.
Depending on the position of the tumors, they may be visible during a simple eye exam using an ophthalmoscope to look through the pupil. A positive diagnosis is usually made only with an examination under anesthetic (EUA). A white eye reflection is not always a positive indication of retinoblastoma and can be caused by light being reflected badly or by other conditions such as Coats's Disease.
In a photograph, the photographic fault red eye may be a sign of retinoblastoma, if in the photograph it is in one eye and not in the other eye.